Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. [1], In October 1918, the Chancellor of Germany, Prince Maximilian of Baden, proposed to have the military administration in the Baltic replaced by civilian authority. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. Nearly one hundred rivers drain Courland, but only three of these rivers – the Daugava, the Lielupe and the Venta – are navigable. Pro-German forces were trying to reanimate a state-like body closely related to the German Empire. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}56°56′54″N 24°05′09″E / 56.94833°N 24.08583°E / 56.94833; 24.08583, Map of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in Europe in 1918, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duchy_of_Courland_and_Semigallia_(1918)&oldid=1002163302, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories disestablished in 1918, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Duchy of Courland was absorbed on September 22, 1918 by the, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:13. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726. In 1935, Courland had an area of 13,210 square kilometres (5,099 sq mi) and a population of 292,659 making it the least populous of the provinces.[4]. Courland was no longer an administrative unit under the Soviets but an early Liepāja Oblast, one of three oblasts in Latvia, roughly corresponded to Courland. [2], On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence. Even in France, his military exploits have long slid into irrelevance. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. The German nobles owned the land and serfdom was the rule. The only seaports were Liepāja, Ventspils and Palanga, there being none on the Courland coast of the Gulf of Riga. By this means, some occupants bought their farms, but the great mass of the population remained landless, and lived as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the social scale. History. Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. In 1870 the population was 619,154; in 1897 it was 674,437 (of whom 345,756 were women); in 1906 it was estimated at 714,200. Knight of the White Eagle. It was dependent from Grand duke of Lithuania, later from the king of Poland & Lithuania. The Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, subdued the Curonians and converted them to Christianity in the first quarter of the 13th century. It was a vassal state of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later of Poland-Lithuania.It became independent in 1791, but was annexed by Russian Empire in 1795 during Third Partition of Poland.. In 1558 the Duchy of Courland was established. Following Russia's Great Retreat of 1915, Courland came under control of the German Army's Ober Ost commander in the person of Paul von Hindenburg, a Prussian military hero. It was engaged in manufacturing, producing metal, arms, ships and trading with the whole world. Clash Royale CLAN TAG #URR8PPP This article is about the early modern duchy. The most crucial one was the Second Northern War between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that started in 1655. Wilhelm recognised the duchy as a German vassal that same month. In ancient times the Curonians, a pagan tribe, inhabited Courland. These provinces corresponded to Latvia's four traditional regions plus Riga. The territory is merged with that of the Russian Kurzeme and Zemgale regions of Livonia. Then, Empress Anna of Russia herself the widow of Frederick William the penultimate Duke of Courland, managed to place her lover, Ernst Johann von Biron, on the Ducal throne of Courland. is made up of lakes. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. After annexation by the Russian Empire, the territory of the former Duchy formed the Courland Governorate. On March 15 Wilhelm II proclaimed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia a "free and sovereign state", but did not assume the title of the Duke of Courland. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Courland became part of independent Latvia once more and it remains so to this day. The part of Latvia between the west bank of the Daugava River and the Baltic Sea became the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, nominally a vassal state of the King of Poland. The Establishment of the Duchy of Courland:. Courland's elevation never rises more than 213 m (700 ft) above sea level. During World War I, Courland formed part of the Eastern Front theatre of operations that saw fighting primarily between forces of the Russian and German Empires. During this period both colonies were taken by Dutch colonists, the merchant fleet and factories were destroyed. In the 18th century Russia acquired great influence over the Duchy; the future Empress Anna of Russia served as regent there from 1711 until her accession the Russian throne in 1730. [2], Kaiser Wilhelm recognised the creation of Courland, as a German vassal by writing to Courland's Landesrat on March 8, 1918 (in German):[citation needed]. Friedrich controlled the eastern part, Semigalia(Zemgale), with his residence in Mitau (Jelgava). The duke is happy enough to relinquish the title in return for rewards from Russia. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia: | | | Duchy of Courland and Semigallia | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. There was a small but vigorous Jewish population. It was engaged in manufacturing, producing metal, arms, ships and trading with the whole world. On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence and on 7 December 1918, the German military handed over authority to the pro-German Latvian Provisional Government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis. In 1609 he married Princess Sophie of Prussia-Brandenburg. In 1795, the last Duke, Peter von Biron, ceded the Duchy to the Russian Empire. It was a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1562 to 1569 and from 1569 to 1726 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, the duchy was absorbed on 22 September 1918 by the United Baltic Duchy. They divided the Duchy into two parts in 1596. In 1655 Swedish army entered territory of Duchy and the Swedish - Polish war (1655-1660) begun. BM01147Am.jpg 300 × 480; 37 KB. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. The remainder of Courland is part of the planning regions of Riga and Semigallia (Zemgale). Flag of the United Baltic Duchy. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region.It existed from 1562 through 1795. Courland (Latvian: Kurzemes), officially the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Latvian: Kurzemes un Zemgale hercogiste), is a country in the Baltic region of Eastern Europe.It is bordered to the north by Latvia, to the south by Lithuania and to the east by the Russia.The territory of Courland covers 27,286 sq km and it has a temperate seasonal climate. As Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. Jacob Kettler (German: Jakob von Kettler; 28 October 1610 1 January 1682) was a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1641 1682). Katharina Friederike Wilhelmine Benigna (1781–1839), Princess of Courland, Duchess of Sagan, eldest daughter of last Duke, born 8 February 1781 in Mitau, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia; died 29 November 1839 in Vienna. Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. He was a very energetic man, built up a navy of 61 ships and pursued a colonial policy; Courlanders built FORT JAKOB on the Gambia river in West Africa (1651) and another colony on TOBAGO in 1652, attempting to get a share in the African slave trade. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. The Duchy of Courland was absorbed on September 22, 1918, by the United Baltic Duchy. It was a fief of Veneda but had some autonomy. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. The territory of the historic Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became part of Terra Mariana in the course of the conquest of the latter by the Brethren of the Sword in the 13th century. Bm02211am.jpg 314 × 480; 64 KB. After the October Revolution, the elected Estonian Provincial Assembly declare… (The Russian authorities of the Courland Governorate were exiled to Tartu never to return.) The duchy was formed after the Livonian Confederation was dissolved during the "Livonian Wars", and it was nominally a vassal state of Poland-Lithuania. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Courland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918 the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia.[2]. The blockade by elements of the Leningrad Front remained until May 8, 1945, when Army Group Courland, then under its last commander, Colonel-General Carl Hilpert, surrendered to Marshal Leonid Govorov, the commander of the Leningrad Front (reinforced by elements of the 2nd Baltic Front) on the Courland perimeter. In 1655 the Swedish army entered the territory of the Duchy and the Northern Wars (1655–1660) began. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. The territories that comprised the Livonian Confederation in the Baltic region were militarily weak and losing appeal. In 1863, the Russian authorities issued laws to enable Latvians, who formed the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. Life Kettler was born in Goldingen (Kuldîga). The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was the longest-surviving state in the territory of Latvia during the Early Modern age. Duchy of Courland (1918) During WWI ,Germany planed a protectorate over the Baltic between 1917 (Russia's withdrawal from the war) and 1918 (German defeat).This project was never realised (was not accepted by German kaiser). The Duchy of Courland became a focus of strategic interest for both Sweden and Poland–Lithuania. The duchy was formed after the Livonian Confederation was dissolved during the "Livonian Wars", and it was nominally a vassal state of Poland-Lithuania. He took the name of Jacob II, after the Duk… For other uses, see, Duchy of Courland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1561–1795, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Courland&oldid=990964199, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles containing Livonian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with German-language sources (de), Latvia articles missing geocoordinate data, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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