Swedish General Georg Henrik Lybecker chose not to face the Russians with his 7,500 men in the prepared positions close to Vyborg and instead withdrew west of Kymijoki river using scorched earth tactics. Fighting in the field, the Swedish army (which during the Thirty Years' War contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown[17]) was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. A respective treaty was concluded in Frederiksborg in June 1720. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[21]. The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War. Sweden defeated the Danish invaders at the Battle of Helsingborg (1710). Russia captured Viborg (ru. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[33]. http://bit.ly/ExtraStoreSubscribe for new episodes every Saturday! Catch the Series Premiere on Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX! The treaty also secured the extradition and execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the alliance seven years earlier. in J.S. However, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. This caused severe trouble for Russian supply route to Turku and beyond as supplies had to be carried overland. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death in 1718, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. Later in July 1720 a squadron from the Swedish battlefleet engaged the Russian galley fleet in the battle of Grengam. In March 1700, a Danish army laid siege to Tönning. The formal conclusion of the Great Northern War came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). [53] Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result led to fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories in the course of the following century, such as the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), and the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). To Society Members, we offer carefully-researched Reference Sheets, a quarterly GN Goat publication, an annual calendar, discounts on model kits, books, CD's and other items, and an annual convention to discover all that is the Great Northern Railway. The Western powers, Great Britain and France, became caught up in the separate War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), which broke out over the Bourbon Philip of Anjou's succession to the Spanish throne and a possible joining of France and Spain. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, led by general Magnus Stenbock, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. Denmark contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp and more on other fronts. Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, while Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania. Created by Minty Lewis, Wendy Molyneux, Lizzie Molyneux-Logelin. Peter I tried to raise his army's morale to Swedish levels. Charles Frederick, son of Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (a cousin of Charles XII)[nb 1] and Hedvig Sophia, daughter of Charles XI of Sweden, had been the Swedish heir since 1702. The war began when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and Russia, sensing an opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young Charles XII, declared war on the Swedish Empire and launched a threefold attack on Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, and Swedish Ingria. Finland was returned to Sweden, while the majority of Russia's conquests (Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia) were ceded to the tsardom. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and assured that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Together with the Swedish fleet, they carried out a bombardment of Copenhagen from 20 to 26 July. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. [23] In the treaty of Altranstädt (1706), Augustus was finally forced to step down from the Polish throne, but Charles had already lost the valuable advantage of time over his main enemy in the east, Peter I, who then had the time to recover and build up an army that was both new and better. The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. When peace was concluded with Denmark, the anti-Swedish coalition had already fallen apart, and Denmark was not in a military position to negotiate a return of her former eastern provinces across the sound. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and Sweden's Age of Liberty began.[16]. When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. ", Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 22:55. From his predecessor, he took over the Swedish Empire as an absolute monarch. Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of King John III Sobieski in 1696. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. This shattering defeat in 1709 did not end the war, although it decided it. The defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until the Russians landed at their flank at Sandviken, which forced Armfelt to retire towards Porvoo (Borgå) after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. 57. To place pressure on Sweden, Russia sent a large fleet to the Swedish east coast in July 1719. Together they carried a landing force of nearly 30,000 men. For wars with similar names, see, Campaigns and territorial changes 1700–1709 (left) and 1709–1721 (right), 1702–1710: Russia and the Baltic provinces. Lützen 1632: Climax of the Thirty Years' War. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga,[35] at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Tsardom by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. Meanwhile, the forces of Peter I had recovered from defeat at Narva and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where they cemented Russian access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. 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