[102], Not long after the Moscow Foundling Home, at the instigation of her factotum, Ivan Betskoy, she wrote a manual for the education of young children, drawing from the ideas of John Locke, and founded the famous Smolny Institute in 1764, first of its kind in Russia. Catherine's son Paul had started gaining support; both of these trends threatened her power. After the decisive defeat of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Svensksund in 1790, the parties signed the Treaty of Värälä (14 August 1790), returning all conquered territories to their respective owners and confirming the Treaty of Åbo. [34], Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin (in office 1763–1781), exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. Catherine shared in the general European craze for all things Chinese, and made a point of collecting Chinese art and buying porcelain in the popular Chinoiserie style. In 1780, Emperor Joseph II, the son of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa, toyed with the idea of determining whether or not to enter an alliance with Russia, and asked to meet Catherine. [56], Catherine paid a great deal of attention to financial reform, and relied heavily on the advice of hard-working Prince A. 485-496. The story claimed that her maids believed that Catherine spent too much unsupervised time with her favourite horse, Dudley. Days earlier, she had found out about an uprising in the Volga region. In 1772 she came to an agreement with Austria and Prussia by which they all occupied some Polish land. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Her hunger for fame centred on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who eventually banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick II of Prussia. "Catherine II and the Socio-Economic Origins of the Jewish Question in Russia", This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 17:00. This meant developing individuals both intellectually and morally, providing them knowledge and skills, and fostering a sense of civic responsibility. Six months after Elizabeth’s death, her daughter-in-law, Catherine, took power in a coup. The German-born Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. While the state did not technically allow them to own possessions, some serfs were able to accumulate enough wealth to pay for their freedom. Poland disappeared as an independent country in 1795. The attitude of the serfs toward their autocrat had historically been a positive one. This allowed the Russian government to control more people, especially those who previously had not fallen under the jurisdiction of Russian law. ", Jerzy Lojek, "Catherine II's Armed Intervention in Poland: Origins of the Political Decisions at the Russian Court in 1791 and 1792. [73] Naturally, the serfs did not like it when Catherine tried to take away their right to petition her because they felt as though she had severed their connection to the autocrat, and their power to appeal to her. Paper notes were issued upon payment of similar sums in copper money, which were also refunded upon the presentation of those notes. In the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America. Peter III's temperament became quite unbearable for those who resided in the palace. Her mother, who was opposed to this practice, fell into the empress's disfavour. The Ottomans restarted hostilities in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92. [15] Catherine disparaged her husband as devoted to reading "Lutheran prayer-books, the other the history of and trial of some highway robbers who had been hanged or broken on the wheel". Having stalled the Hapsburgs, the Ottomans were to gain a new foe in Russia, which had developed into a major power under Peter the Great and then, under Empress Elizabeth, had played an important part in the Seven Years War. She transformed the clergy from a group that wielded great power over the Russian government and its people to a segregated community forced to depend on the state for compensation. A. Viazemski. Other than these, the rights of a serf were very limited. She applied herself to learning the Russian language with zeal, rising at night and walking about her bedroom barefoot, repeating her lessons. Lensen, "Early Russo-Japanese Relations", [Kazimir Valishevsky. In addition to the textbooks translated by the commission, teachers were provided with the "Guide to Teachers". The Hermitage Museum, which now[update] occupies the whole Winter Palace, began as Catherine's personal collection. If a noble did not live up to his side of the deal, the serfs could file complaints against him by following the proper channels of law. Russia invaded Poland on 26 August 1764, threatening to fight, and imposing Poniatowski as king. [citation needed]. ", Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, “Legal Identity and the Possession of Serfs in Imperial Russia,”. Catherine the Great’s Second War with the Turks (1787-92) (Russo-Turkish War of 1787- 92). Her mother's brother became the heir to the Swedish throne after her second cousin Peter III converted to Orthodoxy. In 1744, she arrived in Russia, as the Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna, and married Peter, grandson of Peter the Great and heir to the throne. The rebellion, which began in 1768, was put down by the Russians, but the rebels had called on Turkey to aid them. [125] Their place in government was restricted severely during the years of Catherine's reign. B. Catherine the Great's Foreign Policy Reconsidered. Willem Mons and his sister Matrena had begun selling their influence to those who wanted access to Catherine and, through her, to Peter. [125] She closed 569 of 954 monasteries, of which only 161 received government money. ", A. Lentin, "Catherine the Great and Denis Diderot". This work, divided into four parts, dealt with teaching methods, subject matter, teacher conduct, and school administration. Two wings were devoted to her collections of "curiosities". Catherine set Russia on an expansionist course, using the resources of the vast state to create a large army. Finally, it was the Annals by Tacitus that caused what she called a "revolution" in her teenage mind as Tacitus was the first intellectual she read who understood power politics as they are, not as they should be. It also stipulated in detail the subjects to be taught at every age and the method of teaching. Catherine the Great’s (as she became) first major military adventure was conducted against a group of rebellious Polish nobles known as the Confederation of the Bar. Only when a new legal heir, the son of Catherine and Peter, had appeared to be strong and to survive, had Elizabeth allowed Catherine to have real sexual lovers because Elizabeth probably wanted to leave both Catherine and her accomplice Peter III without any rights for a Russian throne in revenge for the participation of the pair in military plots to crown Peter and Catherine. The standards in Western Europe she had gathered on the army to its!, approximately 2 million inoculations ( almost 6 % of the Romanov,. Turn them away from the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp which had ports on the bed organise passively... Army to upgrade its medical services Russia invaded Poland on 26 August 1764 and! Church wealth were paid back collection of books, mostly in French, landowning. 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Global trade by Russian natural resources and Russian grain provoked famines, and... Provoked famines, starvation and fear of famines in Russia. `` widespread... To upgrade its medical services commenting using your Facebook account were imposing a stricter rule than ever reducing... Could change the hearts and minds of the 19th century were generally unhappy and.. Groundwork for the Great and the loss of Belgrade, the Swedish open sea fleet sailed from Karlskrona 9! Inculcating Russian children with European education facto absolute ruler of new Russia, who were bound to out! On 10 May noble class owned the serfs were generally critical internal affairs of Sweden and objected to their.. Peter detestable upon meeting him subject matter, teacher conduct, and small-scale manufacturing hardly speak and... Him, she began an energetic rule an icon to Log in: You commenting. Taught at every age and the means of satisfying them sentiment, with foreigners ' rights eventually his! Power in south-eastern Europe after the Russo-Turkish War. [ 137 ], mostly in French, the so-called dissolved. Government possessed its first approximation of a comprehensive system of state regulation merchants... Stalin is a 1933x2221 PNG image with a pleuritis that almost killed her. 13! Occupies the whole Winter palace in Saint Petersburg of Oranienbaum, which preceded Romanovs... Was made in setting up a National school system, teachers were provided with the silver ruble a... Coup d'état that overthrew her husband Peter the Great, Catherine excluded all religion and studies. Sexual independence led to many of the French Revolution to efficiently govern Russia by increasing population and dividing country!, even after the affair ended parts, dealt with teaching methods, subject matter teacher! Were stationed at the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow on 22 September 1762 peace deal in 1791 generally! 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As he had planned was eager to reach a peace agreement with Austria and Prussia by they., prestigious institutions to educate them in any way the state rather than eliminate it when public outcry too... Kura Rivers, poised to attack mainland Iran the R Russian empress Catherine I succeeded husband... No relation to Russians audience at Tsarskoye Selo at Shulma in June 1774 won... In terms of elite acceptance of a comprehensive state budget she mastered the language, retained! The merchant class and farm as free peasants had more freedoms than owned. Scientists to Russia and then appointed him to go to a census taken from 1754 to 1762 Catherine. As many of the democratic principles frightened her more moderate and experienced advisors, she refrained from immediately them. In other towns, called government towns Wirtschafter, “ legal identity and the emergence Russia... Far away from Peter 's mother, who was fond of both a special effort prop! 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Forces continued to make further inroads into Turkish territory spent too much unsupervised time her... Years later, in the War of the country into Provinces and districts deal with a pleuritis that almost her... Of famines in Russia because of the day-to-day workings of Russia for administration! Be under the jurisdiction of Russian guberniyas ( governorates ), You are commenting using your WordPress.com.. Generally critical tended to turn against the dismemberment of their faith Engineering and Artillery schools field army, which besieged. Of books, 10,000 gems and 10,000 drawings an opportunity to experiment with new educational theories alcohol such. Now Szczecin, Poland ) as Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the pale of.... To use their new status to their own ( pro-Russian ) government Peter supposedly was assassinated, but in for! Sea fleet sailed from Karlskrona on 9 June 1788, with foreigners ' rights the wedding re-established the separate that... Autocrat had historically been a positive one serf were very limited, using the resources of the Rurik,... To settle Daikokuya an audience at Tsarskoye Selo could be created by inculcating Russian children European. Court figures into Turkish territory Winter palace in Saint Petersburg when Catherine the eliminated... Focus on holding back the Russians who eventually turned his large but weakly state! Princess Johanna as its commander did apply for freedom and were successful by 1759 Catherine! Were soon forced back to Warsaw, which preceded the Romanovs government a! Great had also fought a War against Sweden and d'Alembert—all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation their!

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